This guide is based on the The Chicago Manual of Style 14th ed. rev. (University of Chicago Press, 1993). Examples are shown for both the newer Scientific style of citation recommended for natural sciences and social sciences, as well as the more traditional Humanities style used for fine arts, literature, etc.
Title of Book
Title of Article
Title of Periodical
Place of Publication
Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. Star Trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books.
Wilcox, Rhonda V. 1991. Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture 13 (2): 53-65.
Smith, Jane. 1996. There is no resisting the Borg queen. Maclean’s, а2 December, 82.
Di Rado, Alicia. 1995. Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles Times, 15 March, sec. A, p. 3.
In his article on science fiction in the 1995 edition of the Encyclopedia Americana, Theodore Sturgeon says that the phrase, science fiction, was created by Hugo Gernsback. Theodore Sturgeonsays that the phrase, science fiction, was created by Hugo Gernsback (Encyclopedia Americana, 1995 ed.,s.v. “science fiction.”).
Book Article or Chapter
James, Nancy E. 1988. Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In Spectrum of the fantastic, edited by Donald Palumbo. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. 1993. Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Speech Communication Association. ERIC, ED 364932.
Lynch, Tim. 1997. DS9 Trials and Tribble-ations Review. In Psi Phi: Bradley’s Science Fiction Club [online]. Peoria, IL: Bradley University, 1996 [cited 8 October 1997]. Available from World Wide Web: .
There are two different Chicago Styles. The one shown above is for a Reference List which is starting to become the more common one. See the printed manual for the other.
Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc.
Indent the second and following lines.
If no author is given, start with the title and then the date.
If you are using a typewriter and cannot use italics, then use underlining.
Websites: Include the year you looked at it, the date it was created or updated, and the full date you looked at it.
Include the title of the web page, the name of the entire website, and the organization that posted it (these last two might be the same).
The rules concerning a title within a title are not displayed here for purposes of clarity. See the printed version of the manual for details.
For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual or Chicago’s official website for a list of frequently asked questions about “Documentation” and other aspects of Chicago style.